February 1 – Have A Heart!

Today’s factismal: February is American Heart Month!

Quick! If you are a woman, gather three of your female friends. Odds are that one of the four of you has heart disease. That’s because 42.9 million women in the USA, or about 28% of the female population has heart disease. And it isn’t just women who suffer from this; about one in every twelve men has heart disease. And heart disease is the number one killer in the USA, accounting for nearly a quarter of all deaths. Heart disease kills more Americans than accidents, diabetes, kidney failure, influenza, suicide, and murder combined.

One in four women and one on twelve men suffer from heart disease

One in four women and one on twelve men suffer from heart disease

And heart disease takes many forms. There’s atrial fibrillation, where the top part of the heart beats in 8/8 time while the bottom part does a waltz. There’s coronary artery disease, where the pipes that lead to your heart get clogged up with fatty plaque. There’s heart failure, where the heart moves only a little blood even when your body wants a lot. And then there’s a heart attack, where your heart just throws in the towel and decides to take a rest on the sidelines for a bit.

Heart disease rates across the USA (Image courtesy CDC)

Heart disease rates across the USA
(Image courtesy CDC)

Fortunately, there are almost as many ways to combat heart disease as there are types of heart disease. Adding just 30 minutes of light exercise each day by walking, working in the garden, or going for a bike ride, is enough to reduce the effects of heart disease by nearly 3/4. Eating a low-fat, low salt diet cuts the risk of stroke and heart attack by more than 1/3. And keeping an upbeat attitude has also been shown to improve health (and to get you more friends to share those long walks with).

If you’d like to learn more about heart health and American Heart Health Month, then head on over to:
https://healthfinder.gov/nho/FebruaryToolkit.aspx

January 2 – Anemia Pint!

Today’s factismal: The human body creates two million red blood cells every second.

On a typical day, some 41,000 units of blood will be needed in the US alone. But no day is average; there are good days and bad days. And most of the bad blood days happen in January when there are more accidents and fewer people donating blood. As a result, blood banks are always critically short of blood during the long winter months. And that is why January is National Blood Donor Month.

blood

Which blood type are you?

When you donate blood to the Red Cross, they use it specifically for saving lives through transfusions. But your one pint of blood may be used for as many as three different transfusions! They can do that because blood consists of plasma (55%), red blood cells (40%), white blood cells (3%), and platelets (2%). After you donate, your blood is tested for communicable diseases as a precautionary measure. Next it is separated into red blood cells (which carry oxygen), platelets (which cause the blood to clot), and plasma (which holds the other two). By using the red blood cells on one person, the platelets for a second, and giving the plasma to a third, your one donation can save three lives!

bloodOf the three components, red blood cells are the most important. That’s because the red blood cells are covered with proteins that can form clots if they don’t match the proteins in the serum. Fortunately, back in 1901, Karl Landsteiner discovered that most people have red blood cells that are covered with one of three different sets of proteins. He called them “groups A, B, and C”; this was changed into A, B, and O by later workers. And just six years later, in 1907 the first successful blood transfusion took place in New York. Thanks to his work, there are now more than 30 million successful blood donations every year in the US alone!

Blood Type Rh Factor How many have it?
O + 1 person in 3
O 1 person in 15
A + 1 person in 3
A 1 person in 16
B + 1 person in 12
B 1 person in 67
AB + 1 person in 29
AB 1 person in 167

If you’d like to be one of the 15 million people who donate blood every year, then why not contact the Red Cross? Every drop of blood that they get is used specifically for transfusions and they are always need more than they have, especially in January. So go give!

http://www.redcrossblood.org/donating-blood

December 7 – Who Flu There?

Today’s factismal: Just 2,500 Americans have had the flu thus far this season.

Every year, the influenza virus strikes (actually, a couple of them strike). And every year, millions of Americans and hundreds of millions of people elsewhere come down with it. Though most of the people who come down with the flu eventually recover, hundreds of thousands of people die every year. Thus far this year, we’ve been lucky; only about 2,500 people have come down with the flu.

So far, the flu has only hit a few places in the USA - but the season is early yet! (Image courtesy CDC)

So far, the flu has only hit a few places in the USA – but the season is early yet!
(Image courtesy CDC)

That is due in large part to the efforts of the CDC and other medical authorities; thanks to them, influenza is now the ninth most common cause of death instead of being the most common cause.  One reason that flu is less deadly now is because our medical care is better. Another reason is the introduction of annual vaccines; though sometimes they don’t quite match the flu strains that occur, they still reduce hospitalizations from the flu by nearly 70%.

Do the

Do the “Dracula sneeze”
(Image courtesy the University of Arizona)

What can you do other than get a flu vaccine? Doctors recommend three things: First, wash your hands a lot and practice “vampire sneezes”; that helps reduce the spread of germs and keeps the flu form infecting others. Second, get the flu vaccine; that helps keep you healthy even when someone else forgets to cover their sneeze. And third, report your flu on Flu Near You. They’ll track outbreaks and help us make certain that next year’s flu is even less of a problem than this year’s!
https://flunearyou.org/#/

November 1 – Not-So-Sweet

Today’s factismal: November is National Diabetes Awareness Month

Diabetes mellitus (its name means “passing through sweet”, a reference to the increased sugar levels in the urine of diabetics) is one of the more common diseases; world-wide, nearly 300 million people have diabetes. In the US about one out of every ten people have diabetes and one out of every four has prediabetes, indicating that they are at a higher risk for developing the disease. And diabetes is nothing new. Egyptians in the court of King Tut diagnosed it, as did the Greeks of Socrates’ time who gave the disease its name. And until 1922, diabetes was a death sentence.

There are 30 million people in the USA with diabetes and 86 million with prediabetes

There are 30 million people in the USA with diabetes and 86 million with prediabetes

Diabetes damages blood vessels, leading to stroke, heart attacks, blindness, and kidney damage ; it also attacks nerves, muscle, and even your gums. In advanced cases, the patient’s body releases glucose in response to low insulin levels and put them into a coma that led to death. Though the less severe complications can be treated with a combination of diet and exercise (which is still the recommended course of action today), there was no cure for diabetic coma. Once a patient slipped into a coma, death was sure to follow within a few weeks. And even the diets used to treat patients in the 1900s were severe enough to cause death; a typical “menu” included under 400 calories a day (roughly what you would get from an Egg McMuffin) and so led to weight loss and starvation.

But that changed in 1922. Just one year earlier, Banting and Best had identified a lack of insulin as the culprit in diabetes, and had managed to develop a method for extracting insulin from the pancreas of sheep. (Interestingly, only Banting was awarded the Nobel Prize for the discovery. That made him so mad that he refused to accept the medal and shared the prize money with Best!) Their discovery was put to the test by Leonard Thompson, a 14 year old boy who had just been diagnosed with diabetes.

The first injection was nearly a disaster. Early extraction methods sometimes left impurities in the insulin, and one of those sparked an allergic reaction that nearly killed Leonard. But he survived and did not go into a coma, which was miracle enough in those days. Another researcher was able to develop a better method for extracting insulin using beef pancreases. The new insulin was a success and allowed Leonard to live to the ripe old age of 27, when he died of pneumonia. Insulin was soon the “go-to” medicine for diabetes; within five years, it was available world-wide and diabetes had changed from a death sentence to a manageable condition.

So how do you prevent diabetes? Simple: eat well, exercise a lot, and pick the right parents. Diets low in sugar and fat and high in fiber have been shown to reduce the odds of getting diabetes. (They also help keep you looking good and feeling strong. Score!) Exercise does more than burn calories; it also improves your muscle’s ability to use glucose which eases the workload on your insulin-producing cells. (It also helps keep you looking good and feeling strong. Score!) And diabetes has been shown to be more common in some families and ethnic groups; if your parents or siblings have diabetes, there is an increased chance that you’ll get it, too. Unfortunately, it is very hard to pick the right parents so you should concentrate on your diet and exercise.

If you’d like to see your odds of getting diabetes, why not take the Diabetes risk test?
http://www.diabetes.org/are-you-at-risk/diabetes-risk-test/

And if you score too high for comfort, then head over to the American Diabetes Month® website to learn more:
http://www.diabetes.org/in-my-community/american-diabetes-month.html

October 7 – A Real Shot In The Arm

Today’s factismal: In 1900, influenza was the leading cause of death in the USA; thanks to vaccines, it is the ninth most common cause today.

Flu season officially started this week. Of course, there is never a week without someone, somewhere having the flu but this is the start of the long slow climb in cases that will peak sometime around January before dying back until next October. And doctors are doing their best to make that peak as small as possible by encouraging everyone to get a flu shot. (I just had mine. I’m having the side effect of a sore arm. I’m also having the side effect of not dying from the flu.) Sadly, this year, the nasal spray is not an option.

Behold the mighty syringe! (Image courtesy the CDC)

Behold the mighty syringe!
(Image courtesy the CDC)

Even if you had one last year, doctors urge you to get one this year, too. You need to do this because, just like the common cold, the flu is a family of viruses and not a single virus (like polio). The family of flu viruses is made up of rapidly changing variants that are identified by the proteins on the outside of the shell that holds the virus (that’s what the “H1” and “N1” mean). Because the virus itself changes from year-to-year, the vaccine that you had last year won’t work against this year’s strain any more than a polio vaccine will prevent the measles. And because we don’t know which virus will be the most common in any given year, all that the researchers can do is make a vaccine that protects against the most likely strains; because it provides some protection against all strains, it helps to lower the infection rate.

Gobs of the H1 influenza virus, all lumped together (Image courtesy CDC)

Gobs of the H1 influenza virus, all lumped together
(Image courtesy CDC)

The flu vaccine reduces the chances of getting the flu by nearly 70% (that is, if 100 people who took the vaccine would have gotten the flu then only 30 actually do). Even better, the vaccine reduces the length and severity of flu symptoms in those folks who do get sick. And that’s important because the flu acts as a “gateway infection”; people sick with the flu can develop bronchitis or pneumonia. (That’s happened to me twice.) And the deal gets even worse for folks with heart disease – the flu is known to make heart failure much more likely. Though this is most likely to happen for people who haven’t developed a good immune system yet (such as babies and toddlers) and for folks who have older and less active immune systems (like senior citizens). But in some cases (like the 1918 outbreak), the flu targets healthy people instead, which is why everyone should get the vaccine!

Do the "Dracula sneeze" (Image courtesy Arizona State University)

Do the “Dracula sneeze”
(Image courtesy Arizona State University)

OK, but what can you do other than get a flu vaccine? Doctors recommend three things: First, wash your hands a lot and practice “vampire sneezes”; that helps reduce the spread of germs and keeps the flu form infecting others. Second, get the flu vaccine; that helps keep you healthy even when someone else forgets to cover their sneeze. And third, report your flu on Flu Near You; that helps the doctors track the outbreak and send resources where they are needed.
https://flunearyou.org/

September 30 – One Flu Over

Today’s factismal: Flu season starts tomorrow – are you protected?

Every year about this time two things happen: malls start blaring Christmas carols and doctors start urging people to get flu shots. The first is inescapable (even though it makes Santa cry), and the second is essential. That’s because, though most people don’t realize it, flu can be a killer. For example, in 1918, the “Spanish” flu sickened 30% of the world’s population and killed more than 50 million people; if a similar outbreak happened today, there would be more than two billion people sick, or the equivalent of the entire population of China and India combined.

Gobs of the H1 influenza virus, all lumped together (Image courtesy CDC)

Gobs of the H1N1 influenza virus, all lumped together
(Image courtesy CDC)

Even when it isn’t as virulent as the 1918 outbreak, the flu can be deadly. Today it is the ninth most common cause of death in the USA; last year’s outbreak killed approximately 174,000 in the USA alone. It is so deadly because the flu is a rapidly evolving family of viruses that love to live in warm, moist places like lungs. The family of flu viruses is made up of rapidly changing variants that are identified by the proteins on the outside of the shell that holds the virus (that’s what the “H1” and “N1” mean). Because the virus itself changes from year-to-year, the vaccine that you had last year won’t work against this year’s strain any more than a polio vaccine will prevent the measles. And because we don’t know which virus will be the most common in any given year, all that the researchers can do is make a vaccine that protects against the most likely strains; because it provides some protection against all strains, it helps to lower the infection rate.

The H7N9 influenza virus which has just started infecting people (Image courtesy CDC)

The H7N9 influenza virus which has just started infecting people
(Image courtesy CDC)

And that’s why doctors urge everyone to get a flu vaccination every year. The flu vaccine reduces the chances of getting the flu by nearly 70% (that is, if 1,000,000 people who took the vaccine would have gotten the flu then only 300,000 actually do). Even better, the vaccine reduces the length and severity of flu symptoms in those folks who do get sick. And that’s important because the flu acts as a “gateway infection”; people sick with the flu can develop bronchitis or pneumonia. And the deal gets even worse for folks with heart disease – the flu is known to make heart failure much more likely. Though this is most likely to happen for people who haven’t developed a good immune system yet (such as babies and toddlers) and for folks who have older and less active immune systems (like senior citizens). But in some cases (like the 1918 outbreak), the flu targets healthy people instead, which is why everyone should get the vaccine!

Do the

Do the “Dracula sneeze”
(Image courtesy the University of Arizona)

OK, but what can you do other than get a flu vaccine? Doctors recommend three things: First, wash your hands a lot and practice “vampire sneezes”; that helps reduce the spread of germs and keeps the flu form infecting others. Second, get the flu vaccine; that helps keep you healthy even when someone else forgets to cover their sneeze. And third, report your flu on Flu Near You; that helps the doctors track the outbreak and send resources where they are needed.
https://flunearyou.org/

Stay healthy!

September 29 – Hearty Recommendation

Today’s factismal: Your heart will beat nearly three billion times during your life.

Welcome to World Heart Day! Today, we celebrate all things cardiac-related, from the fact that we all got ’em to the fact that we all need ’em. But the one thing that we celebrate most today is the fact that we are smart enough to protect these organs by taking care of them with proper diet, exercise, and plenty of rest. What? You don’t do any of those things? Well, you should!

Why? Because heart disease is the number one killer in the world. Every year, heart disease and congestive heart failure take more than 17.5 million people! Let’s put it this way – if you know four women, then one of them will die from heart disease. All told, about 28% of the women and 9% of the men in the USA have heart disease. Heart disease kills more Americans than accidents, diabetes, kidney failure, influenza, suicide, and murder combined.

Heart disease rates across the USA (Image courtesy CDC)

Death rates from heart disease across the USA
(Image courtesy CDC)

Heart disease takes many forms. There’s atrial fibrillation, where the top part of the heart beats in 9/7 time while the bottom part does a waltz. There’s coronary artery disease, where the pipes that lead to your heart get clogged up with fatty plaque. There’s heart failure, where the heart moves only a little blood even when your body wants a lot. And then there’s a heart attack, where your heart just throws in the towel and decides to take a rest on the sidelines for a bit.

Even the Assitant Surgeon general needs to have her blood pressure monitored (Image courtesy CDC)

Even the Assistant Surgeon General needs to have her blood pressure monitored
(Image courtesy CDC)

So how do they test for heart disease? There are lots of ways but the first test is one that you’ve probably seen at the local drug store – they take your blood pressure. Known technically as a sphygmomanometer or blood pressure cuff (because sphygmomanometer is a mouthful)they tell the doctor just how much effort your heart has to expend moving blood around your body. There is a number that tells the doctor the maximum pressure that it takes to move blood (the systolic pressure) and another that tells the doctor the minimum pressure in your blood (the diastolic pressure). Typically, the two numbers are about 30 points different, e.g., a reading of 120/90. If the numbers differ by more than 40 points for multiple readings, that could indicate a serious heart condition. And if the systolic number is too high or too low, then that could also mean that you need to see a doctor.

Description Systolic (High) Number Diastolic (Low) Number What to do?
Hypotension <90 <60 See a doctor
Normal 90–119 60–79 Smile!
Prehypertension 120–139 80–89 See a doctor
Hypertension >140 >90 Really go see a doctor

Blood pressure that is too low is known as hypotension and can cause dizziness and fainting; it is caused by things such as shock, blood loss, disease, and simply standing up too quickly. (That last one usually goes away pretty quickly but it has a cool name – orthostatic hypotension.) Hypotension is fairly rare and usually caused by a reaction to medications.

Blood pressure that is too high is known as hypertension; doctors call it “the silent killer” because it can cause strokes, heart failure, heart attacks, kidney failure, and blindness without the victim ever knowing that he has it. And there are a lot of people with the disease. The CDC estimates that one out of every three Americans has hypertension – that’s 70,000,000 people! As you might guess, something this common and this deadly has a lot of people researching it.

Heart disease rates across the USA (Image courtesy CDC)

Heart disease rates across the USA
(Image courtesy CDC)

And that research is beginning to bear fruit. In a recent study of 9,300 people suffering from hypertension, they discovered that dropping the diastolic pressure below 140 is good but dropping it below 120 is great! When the participants managed to bring their blood pressure back down into the “normal” range, their risk for heart attacks, stroke, and heart failure dropped by a third. Even better, their risk of dying dropped by a quarter! Because the results were so startling and so clear, the study ended two years early so that everyone could be put on a regime to lower their blood pressure.

If you’d like to celebrate World Heart Day by doing a little heart research of your own and maybe work in some citizen science on the side, why not head over to the CDC’s Million Heart website. there you will find tools to help you manage your blood pressure and learn what it will take to prevent a million heart attacks by 2017. To learn more, beat a path to:
http://millionhearts.hhs.gov/