November 30 – Map Quest

Today’s factismal: The first map of the Moon was made 407 years ago today.

Back in the 1600’s, there were only two things that everyone was sure of: death and the fact that things in the heavens were perfect. The first was kind of obvious thanks to smallpox, war, famine, and straight party ticket voting, and the second had to be true because Aristotle said it and the Roman Catholic Church believed it. At the time, it was thought that anything on Earth was corrupt thanks to Adam’s sin while anything in the skies was part of Heaven and therefore incorruptible. So you can imagine the furor when Galileo took the telescope he invented and turned it to the Moon – and then told everyone what he saw.

Galileo's telescope revolutionized our view of the Universe - literally!

Galileo’s telescope revolutionized our view of the Universe – literally!

And what he saw was revolutionary. Instead of being a perfect, smooth sphere, the Moon was covered with pockmarks and scars – what we know now to be impact craters and lava flows. While today all of the attention is given to Galileo’s proofs that the Earth was not the center of the Universe, it was his demonstration that the heavens were imperfect that struck the most direct blow at the Roman Catholic Church’s philosophy. As a result, even though anyone could verify the truth of Galileo’s work by simply looking, many preferred not to do so lest they also fall into heresy.

Galileo's map of the Moon (Image courtesy Galileo)

Galileo’s map of the Moon
(Image courtesy Galileo)

If you aren’t afraid of heresy then go out to look a the Moon tonight and take a long gander at the big black splotch that’s looking back at you. That’s Oceanus Procelarum, or the Ocean of Storms. It was named in 1655 (46 years after Galileo published his map) by Giovanni Riccioli, a Catholic priest who liked Galileo’s results but not his methods. To “punish” Galileo and his friends for disproving Church doctrine, he used the names of those who supported the heliocentric universe for the craters nearest Oceanus Procellarum which turns out to be one of the largest outflows of lava anywhere in the Solar System. That big white blotch on the eastern side of the stormy ocean? That’s Copernicus Crater, named for the chief heliocentricist and all-around troublemaker; those long white streaks are bits of lunar rock and dust that were thrown out when the asteroid slammed into the Moon and formed the crater.

A modern view of the Moon (Image courtesy NASA)

A modern view of the Moon
(Image courtesy NASA)

And while you may not believe it, we are still naming things on the Moon today! Even after four centuries of discoveries, there are still new features to see on the Moon and new things to identify. By mapping every crater and every lava flow and every mountain, we can get a better idea of how the Moon has changed over time and learn more about how the Solar System formed. And the best part is that you can help! Just head over to Cosmo Quest and start clicking on the Moon pictures to tell them what you see. For more information, land at:
https://cosmoquest.org/x/?application=simply_craters

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