Today’s factismal: November is National Diabetes Awareness Month
Diabetes mellitus (its name means “passing through sweet”, a reference to the increased sugar levels in the urine of diabetics) is one of the more common diseases; world-wide, nearly 300 million people have diabetes. In the US about one out of every ten people have diabetes and one out of every four has prediabetes, indicating that they are at a higher risk for developing the disease. And diabetes is nothing new. Egyptians in the court of King Tut diagnosed it, as did the Greeks of Socrates’ time who gave the disease its name. And until 1922, diabetes was a death sentence.
Diabetes damages blood vessels, leading to stroke, heart attacks, blindness, and kidney damage ; it also attacks nerves, muscle, and even your gums. In advanced cases, the patient’s body releases glucose in response to low insulin levels and put them into a coma that led to death. Though the less severe complications can be treated with a combination of diet and exercise (which is still the recommended course of action today), there was no cure for diabetic coma. Once a patient slipped into a coma, death was sure to follow within a few weeks. And even the diets used to treat patients in the 1900s were severe enough to cause death; a typical “menu” included under 400 calories a day (roughly what you would get from an Egg McMuffin) and so led to weight loss and starvation.
But that changed in 1922. Just one year earlier, Banting and Best had identified a lack of insulin as the culprit in diabetes, and had managed to develop a method for extracting insulin from the pancreas of sheep. (Interestingly, only Banting was awarded the Nobel Prize for the discovery. That made him so mad that he refused to accept the medal and shared the prize money with Best!) Their discovery was put to the test by Leonard Thompson, a 14 year old boy who had just been diagnosed with diabetes.
The first injection was nearly a disaster. Early extraction methods sometimes left impurities in the insulin, and one of those sparked an allergic reaction that nearly killed Leonard. But he survived and did not go into a coma, which was miracle enough in those days. Another researcher was able to develop a better method for extracting insulin using beef pancreases. The new insulin was a success and allowed Leonard to live to the ripe old age of 27, when he died of pneumonia. Insulin was soon the “go-to” medicine for diabetes; within five years, it was available world-wide and diabetes had changed from a death sentence to a manageable condition.
So how do you prevent diabetes? Simple: eat well, exercise a lot, and pick the right parents. Diets low in sugar and fat and high in fiber have been shown to reduce the odds of getting diabetes. (They also help keep you looking good and feeling strong. Score!) Exercise does more than burn calories; it also improves your muscle’s ability to use glucose which eases the workload on your insulin-producing cells. (It also helps keep you looking good and feeling strong. Score!) And diabetes has been shown to be more common in some families and ethnic groups; if your parents or siblings have diabetes, there is an increased chance that you’ll get it, too. Unfortunately, it is very hard to pick the right parents so you should concentrate on your diet and exercise.
If you’d like to see your odds of getting diabetes, why not take the Diabetes risk test?
And if you score too high for comfort, then head over to the American Diabetes Month® website to learn more: