August 1 – Pokey Dokey

Today’s factismal: August is National Immunization Awareness Month.

The smallpox virus (Image courtesy CDC)

The smallpox virus, former public enemy number one
(Image courtesy CDC)

If you want to be thankful for modern medicine, all you have to do is look at what used to kill us. In 1900, influenza was the leading cause of death in the USA (153,000 deaths or 202/100,000); today, it is the ninth most common (50,097 or 16/100,000). In 1964-1965, there were 20,000 babies born with congenital rubella syndrome in the USA; in the past ten years, there were none, thanks to vaccines. In 1916 in the US alone, there were more than 27,000 new cases of polio that paralyzed thousands and killed 6,000 people; in 2012 for the entire world, there were just 223 new cases of polio and no deaths or paralyzations. And then there is the best example for why we vaccinate – smallpox. In 1967, 2,000,000 people were killed each year by smallpox and countless others were left scarred or blind; today, smallpox is but a memory thanks to an effective vaccination campaign.

Vaccines contain trivial amounts of antiseptics (Data courtesy CDC)

Vaccines contain trivial amounts of antiseptics
(Data courtesy CDC)

Unfortunately, a lot of people have forgotten how dangerous things used to be and are no longer vaccinating their children. They are worried by vaccine ingredients such as aluminum potassium sulfate (the stuff that makes pickles taste sour), agar  (the stuff that makes toothpaste a paste), formaldehyde (made by your body as part of the energy cycle), and dihydrogen monoxide (water). Even though the ingredients are tested and known to be safe, scaremongering news stories have led many to stop vaccinating. And that’s a bad thing.

A simplified view of herd immunity

A simplified view of herd immunity

It is bad because vaccines do more than protect the people who take them; they also protect the people who can’t. People such as newborn infants (like the ones who were infected with measles by a missionary returning from overseas), people with compromised immune systems (such as children with cancer), and people for whom the vaccine never took (estimated to be about 5% of the population). By getting vaccinated, we create a “ring of immunity” that keeps the disease from spreading as quickly as it otherwise would (the Disneyland outbreak is a good example of herd immunity at work).  And, of course, if enough people use the vaccine, then the disease is eradicated which means that we can stop using the vaccine!

A comparison of the deaths caused by measles and those caused by vaccines; the vaccine deaths were exaggerated for clarity. Each face represents 1,000 deaths.

A comparison of the deaths caused by measles and those caused by vaccines; the vaccine deaths were exaggerated for clarity. Each face represents 1,000 deaths.

Now it is true that vaccines are not perfectly safe. An estimated 10,000 people have died from vaccines. But what is true is that getting vaccinated is much, much, much safer than not doing so. The flu vaccine reduces the chances of getting the flu by nearly 70% (that is, if 1,000,000 people who took the vaccine would have gotten the flu then only 300,000 actually do); without the flu vaccine, there would have been more than 500,000 deaths from the flu in the US last year instead of the 50,000 that did. Without the polio vaccine, there would be two million cases each year, killing nearly half a million people and leaving another 750,000 paralyzed. With the vaccine, polio has been eradicated in all but three countries (Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nigeria).

So what can you do for National Immunization Awareness Month? First, take care of yourself and your family by making sure that everyone’s vaccinations are up to date. Then take care of others by working with Global Vaccines. They are using their profits from vaccines in countries like the USA to pay for vaccinations in poor countries:

If you’d like to help drive a disease into extinction, then join the Global Polio Eradication Initiative:

And remember that flu season is just around the corner. Flu vaccines are safe, effective, and free under most health plans!


One thought on “August 1 – Pokey Dokey

  1. Pingback: May 14 – Controversy | Little facts about science

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