October 24 – Fine As Silk

Today’s factismal: The first nylon stockings went on sale in 1939.

Back in 1939, women had a big problem: they wanted to wear silk stockings but they couldn’t afford them. The price of a typical pair of silk stockings had risen by more than 50% in the past year alone, thanks to rising demand and embargoes on foreign goods. And even if she could afford the $0.69 ($11.26 in today’s money) that a pair of stockings cost, a woman was likely to see her investment ruined the first time that she wore them. Fortunately, chemistry was about to come to the rescue.

Artificial silk had been known since 1855 when nitrocellulose (aka guncotton or “oops! I blew your legs off”) was turned into fine, extremely flammable threads that became known as “mother-in-law’s silk”. The process was further refined into the creation of rayon from sawdust in the early 1920s, but the threads were coarse and irregular. So scientists searched for an alternative and finally found it in 1935. The nylon silk that they produced was first used to make bristles for toothbrushes; once the process had been refined enough to create long fibers, they started to manufacture stockings, parachute cloth, and other fabric goods.

A war poster encouraging recycling silk and other scarce goods (Image courtesy Truman Library)

A war poster encouraging recycling silk and other scarce goods
(Image courtesy Truman Library)

Their discovery came just in time as many of the traditional sources for rope (hemp from Indonesia), tires (rubber from Indonesia and Thailand), silk fabric (silk from China) and other materials had been embargoed due to concerns about the war that had begun. Thanks to their work, the US was able to substitute synthetic materials for the natural goods; today, many of those synthetic materials are not only still used but often preferred due to their superior quality and strength. If you’d like to learn more about the chemistry behind nylon and other synthetic fabrics, then head on over to Chemspider:
http://www.chemspider.com/

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